• some text on adverbs

    From alexander koryagin@2:5020/400 to All on Sat Mar 3 08:24:55 2018
    From: "alexander koryagin" <koryagin@erec.ru>

    Hello, All!

    Refreshing my memory on adverbs, I've got this text, that probably can be useful for other learners too.

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    _ADVERBS_

    _Printed in italic_ - just to attract attention to the words.
    _PRINTED IN CAPITAL - HOW IT SHOUD BE._

    The clearness of the sentence is often dependent upon the proper placing of the adverb. No absolute rule can be laid down, but it should generally be placed before the word it qualifies. It is sometimes necessary to place it after the verb, and occasionally between the auxiliary and the verb, but it should never come between to and the infinitive.

    "I have thought of marrying _often_." As _THE ADVERB RELATES TO THE THINKING_, and not to the marrying, the sentence should read, "I have _OFTEN_ thought of marrying."

    "We have _often_ occasion to speak of health." This should be, "We _OFTEN_ have occasion," etc.

    "It remains then _undecided_ whether we shall go to Newport or Saratoga."
    _PLACE UNDECIDED BEFORE THEN_.

    _Adjective or Adverb_

    There is often a doubt in the mind of the speaker whether to use the adjective or the adverb, and too frequently he reaches a wrong decision.
    When the limiting _WORD EXPRESSES A QUALITY OR STATE OF THE SUBJECT OR OF
    THE OBJECT OF A VERB, THE ADJECTIVE MUST BE EMPLOYED_; but if the _MANNER
    OF THE ACTION IS TO BE EXPRESSED, THE ADVERB MUST BE USED_. The _verbs be, seem, look, taste, smell, and feel_ furnish many stumbling-blocks.

    "This rose smells _sweetly_." As the property or quality of the rose
    is here referred to, and not the manner of smelling, the adjective _SWEET_ should be employed, and not the adverb _sweetly_.

    "Thomas feels quite _badly_ about it." Here, again, it is the condition of Thomas's mind, and not the manner of feeling, that is to be expressed; hence, _badly_ should be _BAD_ or _UNCOMFORTABLE_.

    "Didn't she look _beautifully_ upon the occasion of her wedding?"
    No; she looked _BEAUTIFUL_.

    "The sun shines _brightly_." _BRIGHT_ is the better word.

    "The child looks _COLD_," refers to the condition of the child. "The
    lady looked _COLDLY_ upon her suitor," refers to the manner of looking.

    "The boy feels _WARM_" is correct. "The boy feels _WARMLY_ the rebuke
    of his teacher" is equally correct.

    While license is granted to the poets to use the adjective for the adverb, as in the line

    "They fall successive and successive rise,"

    in prose the one must never be substituted for the other.

    "_AGREEABLY_ to my promise, I now write," not "_Agreeable_ to my promise."

    "An _awful_ solemn funeral," should be "An _AWFULLY_ solemn funeral."

    "He acts _bolder_ than was expected," should be "He acts _MORE BOLDLY_."

    "Helen has been _awful sick_, but she is now considerable better." "Helen has been _VERY ILL_, but she is now considerably better."

    Do not use _coarser for more coarsely_, _finer for more finely_,
    _harsher for more harshly_, _conformable for conformably_, _decided for decidedly_,
    _distinct for distinctly_, _fearful for fearfully_, _fluent for fluently_.

    Do not say "This melon is _uncommon_ good," but "This melon is _UNCOMMONLY_ good."

    The word ill is both an adjective and an adverb. Do not say "He can _illy_ afford to live in such a house," but "He can _ILL_ afford."

    "That was a _dreadful_ solemn sermon." To say "That was a _DREADFULLY_ solemn sermon" would more grammatically express what the speaker intended,
    but very or exceedingly would better express the meaning.

    _Such, So_

    _Such_ is often improperly used for the adverb _so_.
    _Such_ is used before nouns (with a definition or without). _So_ is
    used before adjectives without a noun, before pronouns _much, little, many, few_, and before adverbs.

    You are _SUCH A DAWDLER_, Cecily!
    You describe it _SO VIVIDLY_, Steve!
    I have _SO MANY THINGS_ to do.
    It's _SUCH A CLEVER CAT!_

    _Good, Well_

    Many intelligent persons carelessly use the adjective _good_ in the sense of the adverb _well_; as, "I feel good to-day." "Did you sleep good
    last night?" "Does this coat look good enough to wear on the street?" "I
    can do it as good as he can." The frequent indulgence in such errors dulls
    the sense of taste and weakens the power of discrimination.

    _Very much of_

    "She is _very much of_ a lady." Say, "She is _VERY LADYLIKE_."
    "He is _very much of_ a gentleman." Say, "He is _VERY GENTLEMANLY_."

    _Quite_

    This adverb is often incorrectly used in the sense of _very_ or _rather_. It _SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY IN THE SENSE OF WHOLLY OR ENTIRELY_. These sentences
    are therefore _INCORRECT_:

    "He was wounded quite severely."
    "James was quite tired of doing nothing."

    _No, Not_

    "I cannot tell whether he will come or _no_." "Whether he be a sinner
    or _no_ I know _NOT_." In such cases _not_ should be used instead of _no_.

    _So nice_

    "This basket of flowers is _so nice_." _So nice_ does not tell how nice.
    _So_ requires a correlative to complete its meaning. Use _VERY NICE_ or _VERY PRETTY_.

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    Bye All!
    Alexander (yAlexKo[]yandex.ru) + 2:5020/2140.91
    fido7.english-tutor 2012



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